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MME Seminar Series Welcomes: Professor Anil V. Virkar, University of Utah

Refreshments in ETRL- 10:30-11:00

Dr. Anil V. Virkar, Distinguished Professor

University of Utah, Department of Materials Science & Engineering

 

Transport-Induced Failure of Electrochemical Devices: Batteries and Electrolyzers

 

Abstract

Many electrochemical devices such as batteries, fuel cells, electrolyzers, etc. degrade over time and under various operating conditions. In batteries containing series-connected cells, degradation often occurs if one or more cells exhibit different characteristics than the rest of the cells. Also, batteries are more prone to degradation during charging. Problems with laptop batteries are well known. Fuel cells (especially stacks) also undergo degradation during operation. There is considerable literature on solid oxide electrolyzers, which too degrade under certain operating conditions. Degradation in these devices may manifest as increase in resistance, loss of capacity, or both. In some instances, complete electrode delamination has been observed. In some cases, electrolyte instability may occur. In lithium-ion batteries, lithium dendrites can form. While there are several reasons for degradation, the observation that many electrochemical devices degrade suggests that there may be a common underlying reason which is applicable to all such electrochemical systems. This talk is on the degradation of such electrochemical devices which can occur under transport. A key conclusion is that the chemical potential of an electrically neutral species within the electrolyte corresponding to the mobile ion, may lie outside the range covered by the values at the electrodes (reservoirs), and this can lead to transport-induced instability. Specific examples of solid oxide electrolyzers and lithium ion batteries will be addressed.

Biography

Anil Virkar is Distinguished Professor and H. Kent Bowen Endowed Chair in the Department of Materials Science & Engineering at the University of Utah. He is a cofounder of Versa Power Systems, (VPS) (www.versa-power.com), a Colorado-based company with operations in Calgary (later acquired by FuelCell Energy). He was also a founding member of Ceramatec, Inc., a small company based in Salt Lake City, Utah, now a subsidiary of CoorsTek. He received B.Tech. (Hons.) in Metallurgical Engineering from Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai, India (1967); M.S. in Engineering Mechanics from Louisiana State University in (1969); and Ph.D. from Northwestern University in Materials Science in (1973). His research is in fuel cells, batteries, multi-species transport and the role of non-equilibrium thermodynamics in the stability of electrochemical devices. His early work was on fabrication of ceramics (oxides and non-oxides), phase transformation mechanisms and kinetics, and fracture mechanics. He has to date published over 250 refereed papers and has more than 40 patents to his credit. He has supervised PhD and MS research of over 50 candidates to date. His current funding is primarily from DOE and NSF.

Boeing Career Development Lecture Series

Boeing’s Justin Obrien will visit the WSU campus as a speaker. The topic will be The Future …Today.

Justin is a Middle Eastern and Africa Country Manager in the International Strategic Partnerships organization. In this role leads the development and implementation of industry strategies that drive Boeing’s international growth objectives. This includes supporting sales campaigns with compelling industry strategies and forming enduring international partnerships.

Prior to his current assignment, Justin was a Procurement Agent on the Airborne Warning and Control Programs where he was responsible negotiating and managing tier 1 supplier contracts. Justin joined Boeing as an analyst in Phantom Works Finance after graduating from Washington State University with a degree in Operations Management. Later he earned a Master of Science in Finance from Seattle University.

Much appreciation to Justin for taking time to help us learn about burgeoning competitive markets to traditional commercial flight (also known as Horizon-X)

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Week of Women in STEM, April 2-5, 2018

The Week of Women in STEM is designed to provide inspiration and professional development by bringing professionals and students together for networking and mentoring. A special showing on April 2, 8-10 p.m., of the acclaimed movie, “Hidden Figures” will kick off the week, followed by a keynote speech by Gerri Martin-Flickinger, Executive Vice President and Chief Technology Officer of Starbucks April 3, and a unique STEM panel discussion and dinner on April 4. The week’s events will include in a formal dinner with a scientist/engineer for students and industry alumni. On Thursday, April 5th, the American Association of University Women will present two salary negotiation workshops. » More ...

MME Seminar Series Welcomes Dr. Xiao-Ying Yu, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Held in ETRL 101

Refreshments served in ETRL 119 at 10:30 am

Dr. Xiao-Ying Yu

Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, PNNL

Chemical Mapping of the Evolving Material Interface in Liquids

Abstract

A vacuum compatible microfluidic reactor, SALVI (System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface) was employed to study the evolving material interface of particles in liquids.  Three case studies will be provided in this talk.  The first study is a model switchable ionic liquid (SWIL) system consisting of 1,8-diazabicycloundec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-hexanol. When CO2 gas is added to the DBU and 1-hexanol mixture, the solvent polarity is known to change. A series of ionic liquids with different CO2 loading was analyzed. Spatial chemical differences were observed within the same ionic liquid, indicating  Inhomogeneity of the ionic liquid. Spectral principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted. Clear distinctions were   observed among SWILs with different CO2 loadings. The loading plots strongly indicate that fully loaded SWILs share similar spectral components as those of the non-loaded ILs. This finding confirms the      hypothesis of the biphasic structure in the fully loaded IL   predicated by molecular dynamic simulation and presents the first physical evidence of the liquid microenvironment of IL determined by liquid ToF-SIMS. Second, we           investigated the chemical structural evolution of the metal organic framework (MOF) formed over different lengths of times using in situ liquid SIMS imaging.  Zn-MOF-74 is the model system.  Zn-acetate is the metal center and DHTA is the ligand linker in a DMF solvent.  MOFs in solvent are analyzed to ascertain the growth mechanism and the   evolution of the MOF structure.  Ex situ XRD, HeIM, and TEM are used to     characterize MOFs to complement the in situ analysis.  MOF surface area measurement and adsorption and desorption testing illustrate that the MOF pore size    becomes smaller over time yet the overall adsorption/desorption properties  mprove due to the increased density of the pores.  Lastly, large colloidal boehmite particles of importance in nuclear engineering and   processing are studied under a variety of pH conditions.  Particle morphological changes are observed using in situ liquid SEM.  Moreover, the solvent and solute compositions are found to relate to the pH conditions, providing direct evidence of the solvation effect via submicron chemical mapping.  The vacuum compatible microchannel in SALVI offers an    Innovative perspective to study the evolving liquid-liquid and solid-liquid   interface.  This approach allows direct visualization of the spatial and chemical heterogeneity in complex liquids by dynamic ToF-SIMS complemented with other imaging and spectroscopy techniques and provides new insights for improved understanding of the evolving material interface.

Biography

Dr. Yu was trained as a physical chemist and kineticist at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. She did her postdoctoral research at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Colorado State University.  She has been a senior scientist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory since 2006.  She has led the development of a novel mesoscale imaging tool based on microfluidics at PNNL since 2009, which has resulted in three patents, a prestigious R&D 100 award, and a Federal Laboratory Consortium Technology Transfer Excellence Award.  She has developed new concepts in aerosol sampling, led and participated in many field studies for in situ      measurements of aerosols.  Dr. Yu is the chair of the DOE chemical exposure working group; and leads the development of the chemical mixture methodology (CMM) for consequence assessment of toxic health effects since 2008.  She was a member to the DOE Temporary Emergency Exposure Limit (TEEL) Advisory Group (TAG).  Her recent research focuses on in situ mesoscale chemical imaging of soft materials in atmospheric, biology, energy, and material  sciences using microfluidics.

 

 

MME Seminar Series Welcomes Professor David A Weitz, Harvard University

Held in ETRL 101, Refreshments in ETRL 119 10:30-11:00

Professor David A. Weitz

School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, Harvard University

Dripping, Jetting, Drops and Wetting: The Magic of Microfluidics

Abstract

This talk will discuss the use of microfluidic devices to precisely control the flow and mixing of fluids to make drops and will explore a variety of uses of these drops. They can be used to create new materials that are difficult to synthesize with any other method.  These materials exhibit fascinating physical properties and have great potential for practical uses.

Biography

Weitz received his PhD in physics from Harvard University and then joined Exxon Research and Engineering Company, where he worked for nearly 18 years.  He then became a professor of   physics at the University of Pennsylvania and moved to Harvard at the end of the last millennium as professor of physics and applied physics.  He leads a group studying soft matter science with a focus on materials science, biophysics and microfluidics.  He has co-founded several companies to commercialize some of the microfluidics work developed in his lab. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and National Academy of   Engineering (NAE).

 

 

MME Seminar Series Welcomes Dr. Subhanshu Gupta, WSU EECS

Dr. Subhanshu Gupta, Assistant Professor

Washington State University
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

 

Held in ETRL , Refreshments served in ETRL 119 at 10:30 am

Persistent Sensing using ultra-low-power sub-cubic-millimeter devices for Biosensor Interfaces and Heterogeneous Networks

Abstract

Ubiquitous sensor arrays in ecosystems surrounding us have created an interesting conundrum, i.e. the design of these ecosystems and for that matter even electronic circuits for the worst-case variations have resulted in huge cost overruns and inefficiencies with economy-of-scale. This talk will focus on two systems currently being researched at Systems-On-Chip (SoC) Lab at Washington State University that enables efficient integration and implementation of multi-sensor arrays. The first system will describe a multi-channel sensor array for human vital signs monitoring. A mixture of disruptive technologies from signal processing and information theory, circuit design, nanofibers and additive printing are discussed towards achieving a unified goal of a flexible and reconfigurable vital signs sensor for different biometrics. Applications of sub-Nyquist sampling techniques and additively printed touch sensors for measurement of human electrocardiogram will be demonstrated. The second system will describe a combination of piezo-sensor and radio-frequency phenomenon to capture facial muscular movements in preemies. We will conclude the talk with future directions and open research challenges towards an efficient energy-harvested printed sensor array with integrated RF communications.

Biography

Subhanshu Gupta is a faculty in School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences at Washington State University, Pullman. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA in 2011 He was with the RFIC/Mixed Signal group at Maxlinear from 2011-14 where he worked on silicon driven circuits and systems for broadband transceivers used in cable/satellite/infrastructure communication applications. From 2015, he has been an Assistant Professor of Electrical Engineering at Washington State University where he is supervising over Systems-on-Chip Lab. His current research interests include energy-efficient integrated circuits (IC) and systems for millimeter-wave communication and persistent sensing using information-aware signal processing for long-term monitoring.

Boeing Career Development Lecture Series

Boeing’s Christin Datz will visit the WSU campus as a speaker. The topic will be Eco Demonstration.

Christin is the Material Sustainability Leader for Boeing Commercial Airplanes, tasked with reducing the environmental footprint of Boeing’s products throughout their lifecycle. She has contributed to the aerospace industry for over ten years in various capacities as a mechanical engineer and holds degrees in physics and mechanical engineering as well as a Master’s degree in sustainable transportation. Christin’s professional and academic interests intersect in her efforts to further sustainable technology development in the field of engineering and beyond.

This event is open to all students.

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In His Element

Jake Gray holds up catalyst in the lab.

By Mary Catherine Frantz, intern, Voiland College of Engineering and Architecture

Jake Gray first discovered his love of research in high school physics class when his teacher challenged his students to predict the path of a marble rolling down a ramp.

He fondly remembers the simple experiment and the joy and elation when the marble hit its calculated target.

“It is so exciting to predict how the universe works,” he says.

A graduate student in the Gene and Linda Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, Gray is now studying how and why a nickel catalyst in the presence of an electrical field is able to break down tightly bonded methane molecules. The research is important in industrial processes as a potential way to someday more easily convert methane waste into useful products.

“There are unsolved mysteries that I cannot let myself step away from,” Gray says.

Gray began the project as an undergraduate student, which required him to undertake a significant amount of learning.  He was fortunate to receive help from his mentor, associate professor Su Ha.

“Professor Ha strikes the right balance of direction and freedom,” Gray said. “He inspired me to explore and develop confidence as a researcher.”

Jake Gray and Su Ha.

Research can be difficult, in that there are often more failed trials than successes. But, Gray says, the failures can often be critically important.

“Admitting to the fact that you are wrong is one of the most difficult parts of research, but it’s not a bad thing,” he says. “There is a lot to learn from failure.”

When a big breakthrough  happens, Gray says, the feeling of exhilaration makes the entire process worth it.  New understanding creates more opportunities for discovery.

“Being able to find and predict future breakthroughs gives me the same excitement as the marble experiment did,” he says.

Ha is grateful to mentor Gray as he develops confidence as a researcher and encourages students to get involved with research in their undergraduate career.

“Research is the best opportunity on campus to learn outside of a textbook,” Ha said, “For Jake, there has been so much growth. It has made him more engaged in chemical engineering concepts and ignited his passion for the subject.”

Gray looks forward to continuing his research with help from a three-year fellowship from the National Science Foundation. He was among just 2,000 students chosen from more than 13,000 applicants to receive the award.

“Chemical engineering is unique in that you can combine elements and transform them into completely new things,” he says. “Research allows me to experience reactions on a hands-on level.”


In the past decade, the WSU Voiland School has become one of the nation’s top chemical engineering programs in catalysis, with high-impact research in transformational energy technologies. Learn more about research in the Voiland School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering.

MME Seminar Series Welcomes Dr. Praveen Thallapally, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

Thursday in ETRL 101

Refreshments served in ETRL 119 at 10:30 am

Dr. Praveen K. Thallapally

 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA

Ph.D in Chemistry and M.S. in Physical-Organic Chemistry, Ph.D. in Chemistry

 Advanced Nanostructured Materials for Selective Separation and Extraction

 

Abstract

In the materials science realm, porous materials, such as polymers, covalent organic frameworks (COFs), and metal organic frameworks (MOFs), are extremely valuable because of their stability and pore size. It is also easy to manipulate their chemistry. Typically, MOFs and COFs have the surface area of a football field, which enables them to capture and store large amounts of gas molecules and use as sensors. Similarly surface functionalization of MOF thin films on magnetic core particles were demonstrated for catalysis and separation applications. During my presentation I will touch up on two different applications (extraction of rare earth elements from geothermal brine solution and separation of noble gases from nuclear reprocessing plants) of MOFs that PNNL is working on.

 

Biography

My research is focused on the development of novel materials for energy applications, including catalysis, energy storage, carbon capture, and nuclear reprocessing. In the past 10 years I conducted both fundamental and applied research on a large number of novel crystalline organic and metal-organic frameworks (MOF) and membrane materials. The results of my research on synthesis, characterization and separation using porous organic and metal organic frameworks were published in more than 50 DOE technical reports and ~130 manuscripts in international peer-reviewed journals, as well as 6 reviews and 5 book chapters, The scientific impact of my research is evidenced by over 6800 citations and H-index of 47 (Google Scholar) attracted by these publications.

In addition to peer-review journals, the results of my work are disseminated through other professional publications. For example, research on MOFs membrane for CO2 separation was featured in 2013 Presidents Budget report; several other publications were featured on external websites, including Department of Energy – Office of Science website. I also contributed to a report to the Department of Energy on the first economic assessment of solid sorbents for CO2 capture from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants and first economic analysis report comparing room temperature separation of Xe and Kr from air to cryogenic separation process.

I supervise research by graduate and undergraduate students and mentor junior researchers. I am engaged with broad scientific community as a Topic Editor for Crystal Growth & Design, Advisory Board member for CrystEngComm and Journal of Coordination Chemistry, Guest Editor for Catalysis Today and community Board of Editor for Cryst. Grow & Des. Network. I also (co-)organize professional meetings at the national and international levels, including “Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Conversions and Utilization” (Denver, 2011), “CO2 Capture, Conversion and Utilization” (San Diego, 2012), “Metal Organic Frameworks for Energy and Fuels” (ACS, Philadelphia, 2012), and “Metal Organic Frameworks for Catalysis Applications” (ACS, Boston, 2015), as well as by facilitating scientific exchange as a discussion leader.

Finally, I work with sponsors and industrial partners in defining promising research directions going forward by participating in workshops related to NanoNuclear organized by Department of Energy – Office of Nuclear Energy and Brookhaven National Laboratory (2013) and serving as a reviewer for DOE, NSF and American petroleum research fund.